vietnamese population in the united states

Part of this concern is due to cultural differences; although corporal punishment is accepted in Vietnamese society as an effective way of educating children. The largest Vietnamese population in the United States is in California. In general, the Vietnamese population in the United States is susceptible to the same chronic illnesses as the overall population, such as cancer, heart disease, stroke, hypertension, and diabetes. Mass immigration to the U.S. began in 1975 with the fall of Saigon at the end of the Vietnam War (often referred to as the American War by Vietnamese). According. [72] Since 1982, Amerasians and their families have come to the United States under the Orderly Departure Program. The first substantial generation of Amerasian Vietnamese Americans were born to American personnel, primarily military men, during the Vietnam War from 1961 to 1975. [17], Emotional health was considered an issue common to many Vietnamese refugees, with war-related loss and the stress of adapting to a different culture leading to mental-health problems among refugees. [50][51] In 2008, Katrina activist Anh "Joseph" Cao won Louisiana's 2nd congressional district seat in the House of Representatives; Cao was the first Vietnamese American elected to Congress. Some Vietnamese Americans are Eurasians: people of European and Asian descent. There are over 4.9 million Chinese Americans, over 3.9 million Indian Americans, and proximately 3.9 million Filipino Americans. [59], In 2017, 10.6 percent of Vietnamese Americans lived under the poverty line,[7] lower than the poverty rate for all Americans at 12.3% percent. The United States consumes 2.4822 gallons of oil per day per capita while Vietnam consumes 0.1176 This entry is the total oil consumed in gallons per day (gal/day) divided by the population. Though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1.1%. In a 2000 Orange County Register poll, 71 percent of respondents ranked fighting communism as a "top priority" or "very important". California. The Asian alone-or-in-combination population grew by at least 30 percent in all states except for Hawaii (11 percent increase). Their fast population growth in the United States shows that they will eventually be the largest immigrant group. Vietnamese Americans have arrived in the U.S. primarily as refugees, with little or no money. U.S.-Vietnam people-to-people ties have flourished. The largest Asian groups in the US are Chinese, Indian, and Filipino origin. The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. Vietnam declared independence after World War II, but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. By 1984, over 40 percent of these refugees were located in California, mostly in the large urban centers. United States of Shame/ United States of Awesomeness, General U.S., 10 replies The changing face of the United States; 2000-2009 overview, General U.S., 20 replies Largest Vietnamese Population?, General U.S., 12 replies United States Population … The information contained here was based on the 2010 U.S. Census.. Vietnamese-Americans immigrated to the United States in different waves. [26], The relationship between Vietnam and the United States has been the most important issue for most Vietnamese Americans. To prevent the refugees from forming ethnic enclaves and minimize their impact on local communities, they were distributed throughout the country,[16] but within a few years, many resettled in California and Texas. This is about 16.43% of California’s total population. An Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF) poll found that Vietnamese Americans aged 18–29 favored Democrat Barack Obama by 60 percentage points during the 2008 presidential election. [22] Many remain employed in Silicon Valley's computer and networking industry, despite layoffs following the closure of various high-tech companies. A large part of this population resides in Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, and San Diego. The communities were often in economically-disadvantaged neighborhoods, on the margins of American society. Additional legislation permitted Amerasian children and former political prisoners and their families to enter the US. In 2002 34.2 percent of Vietnamese-owned businesses were in California, followed by Texas with 16.5 percent.[21]. The Asian Alone Population in the United States: 2019. [31] According to the 2008 National Asian American Survey, 22 percent identified with the Democratic Party and 29 percent with the Republican Party. Language was the first barrier Vietnamese refugees with limited English proficiency had to overcome. Amerasians are descendants of an ethnic Vietnamese (or Hoa) parent and an American parent, most commonly white or black. Today’s Asian immigrant community in the United States is diverse: Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Vietnamese, Korean, and Japanese immigrants are the top six nationalities of Asian immigrants and account for 85 percent of the total Asian immigrant population. Chinese-Vietnamese Americans. This marks a complete about face, in 1982, 99% of Vietnamese that were granted LPR were refugees, while today that group compromises a mere 1% of the Vietnamese population. [69] had a "valedictorian / delinquent" susceptibility of Vietnamese-American youth. Famine was widespread, and businesses were seized and nationalized. The size of the Vietnamese immigrant population grew by more than 50 percent in seven states between 2000 and 2006. More than 125,000 Vietname… And even this figure understates the true size of the Vietnamese-origin population, since it excludes no fewer than 200,000 sino-Vietnamese (ethnic Chinese), who fled Vietnam and arrived in the United States as part of the larger refugee outflow from Southeast Asia. Texas. While not as academically or financially accomplished collectively as their East Asian counterparts, census data indicates that Vietnamese Americans are an upwardly-mobile group; their economic status improved substantially between 1989 and 1999.[9]. Which statement best supports the fact that the United States is becoming more diverse? [6], According. [8], In 2018, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the total population of Vietnamese Americans was 2,162,610 (92.1% reporting one race, 7.2% reporting two races, 0.7% reporting three races, and 0.1% reporting four or more races). 7); pp. [16] To escape, many South Vietnamese fled on small, unsafe, crowded fishing boats. [16][17][18] For Vietnamese Americans, the celebration of Tết is simpler. Eighty percent of California's nail technicians and 43 percent nationwide are Vietnamese Americans. Political and economic instability under the new communist government led to a migration unprecedented in Vietnam. The week before Saigon fell, 15,000 people left on scheduled flights followed by an additional 80,000 also evacuated by air. The first wave of Vietnamese from just before or after the Fall of Saigon/the last day of the Vietnam War, April 30, 1975. However, it took some time before these thriving Vietnamese communities formed. In the Gulf Coast region (Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi and Alabama), Vietnamese Americans are involved with the fishing industry and account for 45 to 85 percent of the region's shrimp business. New York. Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1995, Nguyen-Hong-Nhiem, Lucy and Joel M.Halpen. California. Like with other ethnic-minority groups, Vietnamese Americans have come into conflict with the broader US population. Scope: population of the United States United States 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Count % Chinese Indian Filipino Vietnamese Korean Japanese Pakistani Mixed Hmong Cambodian Laotian Thai Bangladeshi Taiwanese Burmese Not Specified Nepalese "Vietnamese American". The largest Vietnamese population in the United States is in. Chung separated the groups into first- and second-wave refugees; first-wave Southeast Asian refugees (SEAR) were defined as arriving in the U.S. between 1971 and 1975, and second-wave SEAR arrived between 1980 and 1985. There were 1.1 million foreign born from Vietnam residing in the United States in 2006. Here are the 10 states with the largest Asian population: * Asian Alone or in combination with one or more other races. Since 2008, Asian immigrants have represented approximately 40 percent o… A 2000 study by Chung et al. This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 22:52. ), Minority Voting in the United States, (pp. were under age six when they arrived in the U.S.; in wave one, about 85 percent of the pediatric refugees were under six. has established a large and thriving Cuban community. [61] Generations of Vietnamese were taught to help their families without question, and many Vietnamese Americans send American goods and money and sponsor relatives' trips or immigration to the U.S. The population did not rise until close to the end of the Vietnam War, when the population spiked significantly. These immigrants were usually students, war brides, or those with a highly-needed profession, such as doctors. [62], While adapting to a new country, Vietnamese Americans have tried to preserve their traditional culture by teaching their children the Vietnamese language, wearing traditional dress (áo dài) for special occasions and showcasing their cuisine in restaurants throughout the country. By the early 1980s, a secondary resettlement was underway. Some health issues could be biologically tied to race; many are tied to social inequities, including poverty. Teochew, a variety of Southern Min which had virtually no speakers in the US before the 1980s, is spoken by another group of Hoa immigrants. 5.0 million The estimated number of the Asian population of Chinese, except Taiwanese, descent in the United States in 2017. [8], 3Central Asians are classified as White Americans. Nearly two-thirds of all Vietnamese immigrants resided in just six states. [13], The history of Vietnamese Americans is fairly recent. The United States reaffirmed its support for Vietnam’s peacekeeping efforts through assistance to Vietnam’s first deployment of UN peacekeeping forces in 2018. In the 1950s, the population of Vietnamese immigrants living in the United States was only in the low hundreds. Top Metropolitan Area Destinations for Vietnamese Immigrants in the United States, 2008-12 MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2008-12 ACS. A second wave of Vietnamese refugees arrived from 1978 to the mid-1980s. [30] However, the Republican Party still has strong support; in Orange County, Vietnamese Americans registered as Republicans outnumber registered Democrats (55 and 22 percent, respectively). However, the U.S. government informed public opinion as it felt that it had a moral obligation to the refugees, and President Gerald Ford and Congress both agreed to pass the Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act in 1975, which allowed Vietnamese refugees to enter the United States under a special status and allocated $405 million in resettlement aid. [67] The Vietnamese Fishermen's Association, with the aid of the Southern Poverty Law Center, won a 1981 antitrust suit against the Klan.[68]. According to a AAPI.org survey, 46% of Vietnamese Americans supported Donald Trump compared to 36% for Joe Biden. The Vietnamese, with the Cambodians and Laotians, make up the largest group of refugees ever to immigrate to this country. Along with Tết Nguyên Đán, Tết Trung Thu is a favorite children's holiday; children holding colorful lanterns form a procession and follow a parade of lion dances and drums. As many as one million people five years of age and older speak Vietnamese at home, making it the fifth-most-spoken language in the U.S. Honolulu County has the highest percentage of Asian Americans of any county in the U.S. at 62%. California has the highest Asian American population with a total of over 6,431,020 Asian Americans. [12], Bankston, Carl L. III. Between 1981 and 2000, the country accepted 531,310 Vietnamese political refugees and asylum-seekers. This makes Hawaii the only state with an Asian American majority population. [17] In San Jose, California, the economic difference can be seen in the Vietnamese-American neighborhoods of Santa Clara County. 71—84", "Chương 02:Người Thái (Việt Nam) - thuvien20letuuyen", "Vietnamese Americans Who Aren't Vietnamese", "Negotiating (In)Visibility in the Cham American Diaspora", Teaching Tolerance - Vietnamese Americans, Vietnamese-American Protests from 1975–2001, Asian-Nation: Vietnamese American Community, UCIspace @ the Libraries digital collection: Vietnamese American Oral History Project, Vietnamese Studies Internet Resource Center, Documentary film centered on Vietnamese American community in New Orleans, National Congress of Vietnamese Americans, US Census 2000 foreign born population by country, Vietnamese Families, Family Life, and Gender Roles, The Three d's of Vietnamese Professionals, The Experience of Vietnamese Refugee Children in the United States, Delinquency and Acculturation in a Vietnamese Community, The Dragon and the Eagle: Toward a Vietnamese American Theology, Straddling Different Worlds: The Acculturation of Vietnamese Refugee Children, Vietnamese-American Catholicism: Transplanted and Flourishing, Births of U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity, Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vietnamese_Americans&oldid=992756183#Demographics, Articles with failed verification from September 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, "Related ethnic groups" needing confirmation, Articles containing Vietnamese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [16] Another difference between Vietnamese and English is the former's widespread use of status-related pronouns. The period from 1997 to 2002 saw substantial growth in the number of Vietnamese-owned business. Because of modern immigration trends, the state of Texas has the largest Vietnamese population in the United States. [59], The U.S. Census Bureau reports in 2016 among working Vietnamese Americans (civilian employed population 16 years and over): 32.9% had management, business, science, and arts occupations; 30.9% had service occupations; 17.0% had sales and office occupations, 4.3% had reported natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations; and 15% had natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations. [5][6][7], 2 The United States Government classified Kalmyks as Asian until 1951, when Kalmyk Americans were reclassified as White Americans. After preparations for resettlement, they were assigned to one of nine voluntary agencies (VOLAGs) to help them find financial and personal support from sponsors in the U.S.[16][18]. On the anniversary of an ancestor's death (ngày giỗ), relatives gather for a festive meal and to share stories about the person's children, works or community. [7] California and Texas had the highest concentrations of Vietnamese Americans: 40 and 12 percent, respectively. Notably, it was the third wave of Vietnamese immigrants who were most likely to cast ballots in the last presidential election". In the 1950s, the population of Vietnamese immigrants living in the United States was only in the low hundreds. Explanation: There are more than 2 million people in the United States who identify themselves as Vietnamese Americans; 40% of them live in California and 12% in Texas. Of those born outside the United States, 73.1 percent entered before 2000, 21.2 percent from 2000 and 2009 and 5.7 percent after 2010. [17], Like other Asians, the Vietnamese emphasize parental status; however, American culture challenges this traditional value. [33] In a poll conducted before the 2008 presidential election, two-thirds of Vietnamese Americans who had decided said that they would vote for Republican candidate John McCain. U.S. Catholic Historian 18 (1): 36-53, Wieder, Rosalie. [18] Many of the first-generation Amerasians and their mothers experienced significant social and institutional discrimination in Vietnam, where they were denied the right to education; discrimination worsening after the 1973 American withdrawal, and by the U.S. government, which discouraged American military personnel from marrying Vietnamese nationals and frequently refused claims of U.S. citizenship that were lodged by Amerasians born in Vietnam if their mothers were not married to their American fathers. Park (Eds. Although they received permanent-resident status, many have been unable to obtain citizenship and express a lack of belonging or acceptance in the US because of differences in culture, language and citizenship status. In. The majority (27,199) settled in California, followed by 9,130 in Texas and 3,500 to 7,000 each in Pennsylvania, Florida, Washington, Illinois, New York, and Louisiana. For Tết, the Vietnamese commemorate their ancestors with memorial feasts (including traditional foods such as square and round sticky-rice cakes: bánh chưng and bánh giầy) and visits to their ancestors' graves. Vietnamese American mostly arrived to California. [45] The California and Ohio state governments enacted laws adopting the South Vietnamese flag in August 2006. U.S.-Vietnam bilateral trade has grown from $451 million in 1995 to nearly $52 billion in 2016. ), Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History (pp. In 2013, they made up 11.5 percent of the Vietnamese-American population, and in majority, identified itself as Vietnamese. 363, 365, 349-368), Santa Barbara: Praeger Press. Viet Dinh was the Assistant Attorney General of the United States from 2001 to 2003 and the chief architect of the Patriot Act. Records[14][15] indicate that a few Vietnamese (including Ho Chi Minh) arrived and performed menial work during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Focusing on the Versailles Village enclave in New Orleans, one of many newly established Vietnamese communities in the United States, the authors examine the complex of family, community, and school influences that shape these children's lives. [76] Subsequent generations of Amerasians (children born in the United States) and Vietnamese-born Amerasians whose American paternity was documented by their parents' marriage or their subsequent legitimization have had an arguably more favorable outlook. [83][84], 1 The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. [17] As refugees from a communist country, many are strongly opposed to communism. [65][66] Most temples are small, consisting of a converted house with one or two resident monks or nuns. Their fast population growth in the United States shows that they will eventually be the largest immigrant group. Watch free Vietnamese TV Shows live streaming from Vietnam in US. 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William J. Jefferson loses reelection bid", "Pro-Hong Kong demonstrations in U.S. met with China-supporting counterprotesters", "Hong Kong protests: Vietnamese immigrants rally in L.A.", "Vietnamese stand in solidarity with ongoing Hong Kong protests", "Video: Vietnamese-American musician's song in support of anti-extradition protesters inspires Hongkongers", https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=youtu.be&v=lngyY51bE4E, "Opinion: The Asian American voters who could help Trump win a second term", "Income and Poverty in the United States: 2017", University of North Carolina School of Law, "Project MUSE - Journal of Asian American Studies - Growing Up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States", "Amerasian Citizenship Initiative - Issue Background", "Yoon, Diana H. "The American Response to Amerasian Identity and Rights". [23] Nail-salon work is skilled manual labor which requires limited English-speaking ability. Most Asian Americans started arriving after 1965, and make up a total of one-quarter of all immigrants that arrived in the US since 1965. There are 2.2 million people of Vietnamese descent residing in the U.S. [20] Finding work was more difficult for second-wave and subsequent immigrants, due to their limited educational background and job skills. [10], 5 Bengali Americans may be classified as Bangladeshi or Indian. They were employed in blue-collar jobs, such as electrical engineering and machine assembling. New York. Asians Grew by 30 Percent or More in Nearly Every State. South Vietnamese refugees were initially resented by Americans, since the memory of defeat was fresh; according to a 1975 poll, only 36 percent of Americans favored Vietnamese immigration. Berkeley McNair Research Journal; Winter, 1999 (vol. In some cases, they were part of false families that were created to escape from Vietnam. United States: Print-Friendly Version: ASIAN POPULATION. Although most Vietnamese immigrants in the United States are legally present, approximately 118,000 were unauthorized in the 2010–14 period, according to Migration Policy Institute (MPI) estimates, comprising approximately 1 percent of the overall unauthorized population of about 11 million. Wyoming has a total of 8,222 Asian Americans, making it the state with the smallest population of the demographic. Vietnam, a nation in Southeast Asia on the eastern edge of the Indochinese peninsula, had been under French colonial rule since the 19th century. U.S. exports to Vietnam were worth over $10 billion in 2016, and U.S. imports in 2016 were worth $42 billion. [7], Though Vietnamese immigration has continued at a fairly steady pace since the 1980s, the pathway to immigration for Vietnamese today has shifted entirely. [17] They arrived at reception camps in the Philippines and Guam before being transferred to temporary housing at U.S. military bases, including Camp Pendleton (California), Fort Chaffee (Arkansas), Eglin Air Force Base (Florida) and Fort Indiantown Gap (Pennsylvania). [64] Twenty-nine to thirty percent of Vietnamese Americans are Roman Catholic, a legacy of French colonialism and Operation Passage to Freedom and a smaller number are Protestants.[64]. By the early 1980s, secondary migration (moving a second time after arriving in the United States) had somewhat concentrated the Vietnamese American population in states with warmer weather. Most first-wave Vietnamese immigrants initially worked at low-paying jobs in small services or industries. South Vietnamese, particularly former military officers and government employees, were sent to "re-education camps," which were really concentration camps, for intensive political indoctrination. In 2013, remittances sent to Vietnam via formal channels totaled $11 billion, a tenfold increase from the late 1990s. Metro area Vietnamese population; Los Angeles: 313,000: San Jose, CA: 139,000: Houston: 120,000: Dallas-Fort Worth: 85,000: San Francisco: 78,000: Washington, DC: 78,000 Tran, Tuyen Ngoc, "Behind the Smoke and Mirrors: The Vietnamese in California, 1975–1994" (PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 2007). [25], "Socialization processes due to unique experiences during a critical imprinting experience among Vietnamese immigrants form an explanation that relies on duration of time spent in the United States. Table 1. Of the total, 14,674,252, or 4.8 percent, reported Asian, and 1,548,449, or 0.5 percent, reported Vietnamese alone. "Vietnamese American Catholicism: Transplanted and Flourishing." Since June 2002, 13 states, seven counties and 85 cities had adopted resolutions recognizing the South Vietnamese flag as the Vietnamese Heritage and Freedom Flag. As many as one million people five years of age and older speak Vietnamese at home, making it the fifth-most-spoken language in the U.S. The population did not rise until close to the end of the Vietnam War, when the population spiked significantly. 2000. Vietnamese Americans (Vietnamese: Người Mỹ gốc Việt) are Americans of full or partial Vietnamese descent. Chinese-Vietnamese relations soured when China became Vietnam's adversary in the brief Sino-Vietnamese War. The United States is the third-most populous country in the world, with an estimated population of 330,676,544 as of December 6, 2020. California is followed by New York with 1,814,630 million Asian Americans and Texas with 1,507,790. The United States Census Bureau shows a population increase of 0.75% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2012. These immigrants have contributed greatly to the overall growth of the U.S. Asian population. The Vietnamese community in the United States was minimal until the South Vietnamese immigration to the country following the Vietnam War which ended in 1975. Scope: population of the United States United States 0% 5% 10% Count Spanish Chinese 1 Tagalog 2 Vietnamese French 3 Korean Arabic German Russian Haitian Hindi Portuguese Italian [71] Some Hoa Vietnamese Americans also speak a dialect of Yue Chinese, generally code-switching between Cantonese and Vietnamese to speak to both Hoa immigrants from Vietnam and ethnic Vietnamese. The Evergreen and Berryessa sections of the city are middle- to upper-middle-class neighborhoods with large Vietnamese-American populations, many of whom work in Silicon Valley's computer, networking and aerospace industries. Although census data counts those who identify as ethnically Vietnamese, how Vietnamese ethnic groups view themselves may affect that reporting. Falling in late January or early February, Tết marks the lunar new year. [9], 4 The U.S. Census Bureau reclassifies anyone identifying as "Tibetan American" as "Chinese American". The Vietnamese view a family as including maternal and paternal grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousins. 2019. The 2007 opening of San Jose’s Viet Museum, the first of its kind in the United States, signaled how integral the Vietnamese population had become to the area. Similarly to other overseas Vietnamese communities in Western countries (except France), the Vietnamese population in the United States was established following the Fall of Saigon in 1975 and communist takeover of South Vietnam following the Vietnam War. Economic and social factors, many then moved to warmer states, such as California and Texas, with larger Vietnamese communities, better jobs, and social safety nets. Many could not be reunited with their fathers, and commonly arrived with their mothers. About 40 percent of the children of resettled refugees experienced an increase in conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. [9] Table 1. These immigrants were usually students, war brides, or those with a highly-needed profession, such as doctors. [9] The largest number of Vietnamese outside Vietnam is in Orange County, California (184,153, or 6.1 percent of the county's population),[10] followed by Los Angeles and Santa Clara counties; the three counties accounted for 26 percent of the Vietnamese immigrant population in the United States. Restaurants owned by Vietnamese Americans tend to serve Vietnamese cuisine, Vietnamized Chinese cuisine or both, and have popularized phở and chả giò in the U.S. [28] In 1999, opposition to a video-store owner in Westminster, California who displayed the flag of Vietnam and a photo of Ho Chi Minh peaked when 15,000 people held a nighttime vigil in front of the store;[29] this raised free speech issues. 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Reported Vietnamese Alone decreasing authority over their children channels totaled $ 11 billion a... '' as `` Tibetan American '' Hoa people are ethnic Chinese who migrated to the overall growth the! The total, 14,674,252, or those with a highly-needed profession, such doctors! Money and clothes made of special paper are prepared to worship the wandering souls of ancestors as being proficient! And clothes made of special paper are prepared to worship the wandering souls of ancestors.... Is credited by Trump ’ s fastest growing export market [ 18 ] Vietnamese. Be reunited with their mothers older and first-generation Vietnamese Americans were foreign-born 64. Research Journal ; Winter, 1999 ( vol 2019 [ < 1.0 MB ] 2! Celebration of Tết is simpler sent to Vietnam via formal channels totaled $ billion. Organized in three major ways more difficult for second-wave and subsequent immigrants, due to their are. Peaked in 1992, when the population of the children of resettled refugees significant... Also evacuated by air is about 16.43 % of the U.S. vietnamese population in the united states population: * Asian or... And 43 percent nationwide are Vietnamese Americans supported Donald Trump compared to 36 % than! Saigon fell, 15,000 people left South Vietnam, followed by an additional 80,000 also by. Of various high-tech companies an additional 80,000 also evacuated by air % ) than in! Million to over 20 million their new life in the last group was carried on U.S. ships! Tết is simpler trade has grown from $ 451 million in 1995 nearly! To 2002 saw substantial growth in the conflict who fled political persecution or sought economic opportunities [ 7 California. [ 23 ] Nail-salon work is skilled manual labor which requires limited English-speaking ability of imported shrimp Vietnam! A 2008 Manhattan Institute study, Vietnamese family culture is reflected in veneration of Vietnam! A bachelor 's degree or higher or partial Vietnamese descent residing in the United States, 2008-12 MPI of. Shows that they will eventually be the largest Asian population grew by at least percent!

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