Please read more details about how YuniKorn empowers running Spark on K8s in Cloud-Native Spark Scheduling with YuniKorn Scheduler in Spark & AI summit 2020. In this case, we wish to run org.apache.spark.examples.SparkPi. In a previous article, we showed the preparations and setup required to get Spark up and running on top of a Kubernetes cluster. Spark Execution on Kubernetes Below is the pictorial representation of spark-submit to API server. RISE TO THE NEXT LEVEL | Keep up to date by subscribing to Oak-Tree. Currently, Apache Spark supp o rts Standalone, Apache Mesos, YARN, and Kubernetes as resource managers. Standalone is a spark’s resource manager which is easy to set up which can be used to get things started fast. While primarily used for analytic and data processing purposes, its model is flexible enough to handle distributed operations in a fault tolerant manner. Getting Started with Spark on Kubernetes. How YuniKorn helps to run Spark on K8s. In Docker, container images are built from a set of instructions collectively called a Dockerfile. Quick Start Guide. With kubernetes abstractions, it’s easy to setup a cluster of spark, hadoop or database on large number of nodes. For organizations that have both Hadoop and Kubernetes clusters, running Spark on the Kubernetes cluster would mean that there is only one cluster to manage, which is obviously simpler. The ability to launch client mode applications is important because that is how most interactive Spark applications run, such as the PySpark shell. The local:// path of the jar above references the file in the executor Docker image, not on jump pod that we used to submit the job. To run Spark within a computing cluster, you will need to run software capable of initializing Spark over each physical machine and register all the available computing nodes. Getting Started Initialize Helm (for Helm 2.x) Spark on kubernetes started at version 2.3.0, in cluster mode where a jar is submitted and a spark driver is created in the cluster (cluster mode of spark). This will in turn launch executor pods where the work will actually be performed. While it is possible to have the executor reuse the spark-driver account, it's better to use a separate user account for workers. Deploy all required components ︎. To start, because the driver will be running from the jump pod, let's modify SPARK_DRIVER_NAME environment variable and specify which port the executors should use for communicating their status. On top of this, there is no setup penalty for running on Kubernetes compared to YARN (as shown by benchmarks), and Spark 3.0 brought many additional improvements to Spark-on-Kubernetes like support for dynamic allocation. Spark on Kubernetes Cluster Helm Chart. To that end, in this post we will use a minimalist set of containers with the basic Spark runtime and toolset to ensure that we can get all of the parts and pieces configured in our cluster. The container is the same as the executor image in most other ways and because of that we use the executor image as the base. We tell Spark which program within the JAR to execute by defining a --class option. As you know, Apache Spark can make use of different engines to manage resources for drivers and executors, engines like Hadoop YARN or Spark’s own master mode. Process of submitting the application to the Kubernetes cluster As in the previous example, you should be able to find a line reporting the calculated value of Pi. Adapted from the official Spark runtime. # Install wget to retrieve Spark runtime components, # extract to temporary directory, copy to the desired image, # Runtime Container Image. Kubernetes is a native option for Spark resource manager. Since it works without any input, it is useful for running tests. It is similar to the spark-submit commands we've seen previously (with many of the same options), but there are some distinctions. The command below shows the options and arguments required to start the shell. If you run into issues leave a comment, or add your own answer to help others. Prior to that, you could run Spark using Hadoop Yarn, Apache Mesos, or you can run it in a standalone cluster. When ready, the shell prompt will load. Kubernetes. Once the cluster is up and running, the Spark Spotguide scales the cluster Horizontally and Vertically to stretch the cluster automatically within the boundaries, based on workload requirements. The most consequential differences are: After launch, it will take a few seconds or minutes for Spark to pull the executor container images and configure pods. Pods are container runtimes which are instantiated from container images, and will provide the environment in which all of the Spark workloads run. It will deploy in "cluster" mode and references the spark-examples JAR from the container image. Next, to route traffic to the pod, we need to either have a domain or IP address. If you watch the pod list while the job is running using kubectl get pods, you will see a "driver" pod be initialized with the name provided in the SPARK_DRIVER_NAME variable. report a problem Since a cluster can conceivably have hundreds or even thousands of executors running, the driver doesn't actively track them and request a status. If you have a specific, answerable question about how to use Kubernetes, ask it on Stack Overflow. Based on these requirements, the easiest way to ensure that your applications will work as expected is to package your driver or program as a pod and run that from within the cluster. The executor instances usually cannot see the driver which started them, and thus they are not able to communicate back their results and status. At that point, we can run a distributed Spark calculation to test the configuration: If everything works as expected, you should see something similar to the output below: You can exit the shell by typing exit() or by pressing Ctrl+D. This allows for finer-grained tuning of the permissions. In complex environments, firewalls and other network management layers can block these connections from the executor back to the master. It is a framework that can be used to build powerful data applications. The command in the listing shows how this might be done. Because executors need to be able to connect to the driver application, we need to ensure that it is possible to route traffic to the pod and that we have published a port which the executors can use to communicate. The kubectl command creates a deployment and driver pod, and will drop into a BASH shell when the pod becomes available. or The worker-nodes are then managed from the master node, thus ensuring that the cluster is managed from a central point. Using the Docker image, we can build and tag the image. This means we manage the Kubernetes node pools to scale up the cluster when you need more resources, and scale them down to zero when they’re unnecessary. In the container images created above, spark-submit can be found in the /opt/spark/bin folder. You can also configure the image of each component separately. For a more detailed guide on how to use, compose, and work with SparkApplications, please refer to the User Guide.If you are running the Kubernetes Operator for Apache Spark on Google Kubernetes Engine and want to use Google Cloud Storage (GCS) and/or BigQuery for reading/writing data, also refer to the GCP guide.The Kubernetes Operator for Apache Spark will … You can deploy a Kubernetes cluster on a local machine, cloud, on-prem datacenter, or choose a managed Kubernetes cluster. Since the driver will be running from the jump pod, we need to modify the, We need to provide additional configuration options to reference the driver host and port. Currently, Apache Spark supp o rts Standalone, Apache Mesos, YARN, and Kubernetes as resource managers. Below, we use a public Docker registry at code.oak-tree.tech:5005 The image needs to be hosted somewhere accessible in order for Kubernetes to be able to use it. During this process, we encountered several challenges in translating Spark considerations into idiomatic Kubernetes constructs. Instead, the executors themselves establish a direct network connection and report back the results of their work. To utilize Spark with Kubernetes, you will need: In this post, we are going to focus on directly connecting Spark to Kubernetes without making use of the Spark Kubernetes operator. At this point, we've assembled all the pieces to show how an interactive Spark program (like the pyspark shell) might be launched. Build the containers for the driver and executors using a multi-stage Dockerfile. In client mode (which is how most Spark shells run), this is a problem. Kubernetes, on its right, offers a framework to manage infrastructure and applications, making it ideal for the simplification of managing Spark clusters. Rather, its job is to spawn a small army of executors (as instructed by the cluster manager) so that workers are available to handle tasks. While useful by itself, this foundation opens the door to deploying Spark alongside more complex analytic environments such as Jupyter or JupyterHub. If you’re learning Kubernetes, use the Docker-based solutions: tools supported by the Kubernetes community, or tools in the ecosystem to set up a Kubernetes cluster on a local machine. This last piece is important. The spark-submit command either uses the current kubeconfig or settings passed through spark.kubernetes.authenticate.submission. 6.2.1 Managers. The Kubernetes operator simplifies several of the manual steps and allows the use of custom resource definitions to manage Spark deployments. This means interactive operations will fail. This requires an additional degree of preparation, specifically: To test client mode on the cluster, let's make the changes outlined above and then submit SparkPi a second time. Inside of the mount will be two files that provide the authentication details needed by kubectl: The set of commands below will create a special service account (spark-driver) that can be used by the driver pods. If Kubernetes DNS is available, it can be accessed using a namespace URL (https://kubernetes.default:443 in the example above). suggest an improvement. Every Spark application consists of three building blocks: In a traditional Spark application, a driver can either run inside or outside of a cluster. The Kubernetes control API is available within the cluster within the default namespace and should be used as the Spark master. In addition to automated tuning, our platform also implements automated scaling at the level of your Spark application (aka dynamic allocation) and at the level of the Kubernetes cluster. This section lists the different ways to set up and run Kubernetes. Spark cluster overview. This will be used for running executors and as the foundation for the driver. *'s configuration to authenticate with the Kubernetes API server. Start the containers and submit a sample job (calculating Pi) to test the setup. First, we'll look at how to package Spark driver components in a pod and use that to submit work into the cluster using the "cluster mode." Refer the design concept for the implementation details. spark-submit can be directly used to submit a Spark application to a Kubernetes cluster.The submission mechanism Apache Spark workloads can make direct use of Kubernetes clusters for multi-tenancy and sharing through Namespaces and Quotas, as well as administrative features … In this section, we'll create a set of container images that provide the fundamental tools and libraries needed by our environment. kubernetes k8s-horizontal-scaling spark Kubernetes makes it easy to run services on scale. One of the main advantages of using this Operator is that Spark application configs are writting in one place through a YAML file (along with configmaps, … If the job was started from within Kubernetes or is running in "cluster" mode, it's usually not a problem. Minikube is a tool used to run a single-node Kubernetes cluster locally.. Spark 2.4 extended this and brought better integration with the Spark shell. Spark in Kubernetes mode on an RBAC AKS cluster Spark Kubernetes mode powered by Azure. By running Spark on Kubernetes, it takes less time to experiment. The CA certificate, which is used to connect to the, The auth (or bearer) token, which identifies a user and the scope of its permissions. One of the cool things that Kubernetes does when running a pod under a service account is to create a volumeSource (basically a read-only mount) with details about the user context in which a pod is running. Instructions are things like "run a command", "add an environment variable", "expose a port", and so-forth. Kubernetes takes care of handling tricky pieces like node assignment,service discovery, resource management of a distributed system. Spark cluster overview. Creating a pod to deploy cluster and client mode Spark applications is sometimes referred to as deploying a "jump", "edge" , or "bastian" pod. In Part 2 of this series, we will show how to extend the driver container with additional Python components and access our cluster resources from a Jupyter Kernel. Depending on where it executes, it will be described as running in "client mode" or "cluster mode.". A Kubernetes secret lets you store and manage sensitive information such as passwords. In this post, we'll show how you can do that. # Calculate the approximate sum of values in the dataset, cluster configured so that it is able to pull images from a private repository, Machine Learning & Artificial Intelligence, A Kubernetes cluster that has role-based access controls (RBAC) and DNS services enabled, Sufficient cluster resources to be able to run a Spark session (at a practical level, this means at least three nodes with two CPUs and eight gigabytes of free memory), Access to a public Docker repository or your, Basic understanding of Apache Spark and its architecture, Create a Docker container containing a Spark application that can be deployed on top of Kubernetes, Demonstrate how to launch Spark applications using, Start the Spark Shell and demonstrate how interactive sessions interact with the Kubernetes cluster. Spark commands are submitted using spark-submit. A typical Kubernetes cluster would generally have a master node and several worker-nodes or Minions. Spark Operator is an open source Kubernetes Operator that makes deploying Spark applications on Kubernetes a lot easier compared to the vanilla spark-submit script. If you're curious about the core notions of Spark-on-Kubernetes , the differences with Yarn as well as the benefits and drawbacks, read our previous article: The Pros And Cons of Running Spark on Kubernetes . The driver then coordinates what tasks should be executed and which executor should take it on. spark.kubernetes.container.image spark: the Spark image that contains the entire dependency stack, including the driver, executor, and application. Spark is a general cluster technology designed for distributed computation. This means that we need to take a degree of care when deploying applications. How to setup and run Data Science Refinery in a kubernetes cluster to submit spark jobs. The command below submits the job to the cluster. Open an issue in the GitHub repo if you want to Apache's Spark distribution contains an example program that can be used to calculate Pi. I am not a DevOps expert and the purpose of this article is not to discuss all options for … Thanks for the feedback. In the first stage of the build we download the Apache Spark runtime (version 2.4.4) to a temporary directory, extract it, and then copy the runtime components for Spark to a new container image. For the driver pod to be able to connect to and manage the cluster, it needs two important pieces of data for authentication and authorization: There are a variety of strategies which might be used to make this information available to the pod, such as creating a secret with the values and mounting the secret as a read-only volume. YuniKorn has a rich set of features that help to run Apache Spark much efficiently on Kubernetes. It is configured to provide full administrative access to the namespace. The code listing shows a multi-stage Dockerfile which will build our base Spark environment. Each line of a Dockerfile has an instruction and a value. In this set of posts, we are going to discuss how kubernetes, an open source container orchestration framework from Google, helps us to achieve a deployment strategy for spark and other big data tools which works across the on … Kubernetes is one those frameworks that can help us in that regard. Starting from Spark 2.3, you can use Kubernetes to run and manage Spark resources. Specifically, we will: Copies of the build files and configurations used throughout the article are available from the Oak-Tree DataOps Examples repository. In the second step, we configure the Spark container, set environment variables, patch a set of dependencies to avoid errors, and specify a non-root user which will be used to run Spark when the container starts. It's variant of deploying a Bastion Host, where high-value or sensitive resources run in one environment and the bastion serves as a proxy. If you followed the earlier instructions, kubectl delete svc spark-test-pod should remove the object. Spark 2.4 further extended the support and brought integration with the Spark shell. While we define these manually here, in applications they can be injected from a ConfigMap or as part of the pod/deployment manifest. The current Spark on Kubernetes deployment has a number of dependencies on other K8s deployments. The command below will create a "headless" service that will allow other pods to look up the jump pod using its name and namespace. In a Serverless Kubernetes (ASK) cluster, you can create pods as needed. RBAC should be enabled on the Kubernetes cluster along with correctly set up privileges for whichever user is running the spark-submit command. Using a multi-stage process allows us to automate the entire container build using the packages from the Apache Spark downloads page. Tighten security based on your networking requirements (we recommend making the Kubernetes cluster private) Create a docker registry to host your own Spark docker images (or use open-source ones) Install the Spark-operator; Install the Kubernetes cluster autoscaler; Setup the collection of Spark driver logs and Spark event logs to a persistent storage When it was released, Apache Spark 2.3 introduced native support for running on top of Kubernetes. You can retrieve the results from the pod logs using: Toward the end of the application log you should see a result line similar to the one below: When we switch from cluster to client mode, instead of running in a separate pod, the driver will run within the jump pod instance. For the driver, we need a small set of additional resources that are not required by the executor/base image, including a copy of Kube Control that will be used by Spark to manage workers. Rather, its job is to spawn a small army of executors (as instructed by the cluster manager) so that workers are available to handle tasks. In this talk, we describe the challenges and the ways in which we solved them. These answers are provided by our Community. This repo contains the Helm chart for the fully functional and production ready Spark on Kuberntes cluster setup integrated with the Spark History Server, JupyterHub and Prometheus stack. spark-submit directly submit a Spark application to a Kubernetes cluster. It provides a practical approach to isolated workloads, limits the use of resources, deploys on-demand and scales as needed. When the program has finished running, the driver pod will remain with a "Completed" status. Last modified July 03, 2020 at 10:12 AM PST: Kubernetes version and version skew support policy, Installing Kubernetes with deployment tools, Customizing control plane configuration with kubeadm, Creating Highly Available clusters with kubeadm, Set up a High Availability etcd cluster with kubeadm, Configuring each kubelet in your cluster using kubeadm, Configuring your kubernetes cluster to self-host the control plane, Guide for scheduling Windows containers in Kubernetes, Adding entries to Pod /etc/hosts with HostAliases, Organizing Cluster Access Using kubeconfig Files, Resource Bin Packing for Extended Resources, Extending the Kubernetes API with the aggregation layer, Compute, Storage, and Networking Extensions, Configure Default Memory Requests and Limits for a Namespace, Configure Default CPU Requests and Limits for a Namespace, Configure Minimum and Maximum Memory Constraints for a Namespace, Configure Minimum and Maximum CPU Constraints for a Namespace, Configure Memory and CPU Quotas for a Namespace, Change the Reclaim Policy of a PersistentVolume, Control CPU Management Policies on the Node, Control Topology Management Policies on a node, Guaranteed Scheduling For Critical Add-On Pods, Reconfigure a Node's Kubelet in a Live Cluster, Reserve Compute Resources for System Daemons, Set up High-Availability Kubernetes Masters, Using NodeLocal DNSCache in Kubernetes clusters, Assign Memory Resources to Containers and Pods, Assign CPU Resources to Containers and Pods, Configure GMSA for Windows Pods and containers, Configure RunAsUserName for Windows pods and containers, Configure a Pod to Use a Volume for Storage, Configure a Pod to Use a PersistentVolume for Storage, Configure a Pod to Use a Projected Volume for Storage, Configure a Security Context for a Pod or Container, Configure Liveness, Readiness and Startup Probes, Attach Handlers to Container Lifecycle Events, Share Process Namespace between Containers in a Pod, Translate a Docker Compose File to Kubernetes Resources, Declarative Management of Kubernetes Objects Using Configuration Files, Declarative Management of Kubernetes Objects Using Kustomize, Managing Kubernetes Objects Using Imperative Commands, Imperative Management of Kubernetes Objects Using Configuration Files, Update API Objects in Place Using kubectl patch, Define a Command and Arguments for a Container, Define Environment Variables for a Container, Expose Pod Information to Containers Through Environment Variables, Expose Pod Information to Containers Through Files, Distribute Credentials Securely Using Secrets, Inject Information into Pods Using a PodPreset, Run a Stateless Application Using a Deployment, Run a Single-Instance Stateful Application, Specifying a Disruption Budget for your Application, Coarse Parallel Processing Using a Work Queue, Fine Parallel Processing Using a Work Queue, Use Port Forwarding to Access Applications in a Cluster, Use a Service to Access an Application in a Cluster, Connect a Front End to a Back End Using a Service, List All Container Images Running in a Cluster, Set up Ingress on Minikube with the NGINX Ingress Controller, Communicate Between Containers in the Same Pod Using a Shared Volume, Developing and debugging services locally, Extend the Kubernetes API with CustomResourceDefinitions, Use an HTTP Proxy to Access the Kubernetes API, Configure Certificate Rotation for the Kubelet, Configure a kubelet image credential provider, Interactive Tutorial - Creating a Cluster, Interactive Tutorial - Exploring Your App, Externalizing config using MicroProfile, ConfigMaps and Secrets, Interactive Tutorial - Configuring a Java Microservice, Exposing an External IP Address to Access an Application in a Cluster, Example: Deploying PHP Guestbook application with Redis, Example: Add logging and metrics to the PHP / Redis Guestbook example, Example: Deploying WordPress and MySQL with Persistent Volumes, Example: Deploying Cassandra with a StatefulSet, Running ZooKeeper, A Distributed System Coordinator, Restrict a Container's Access to Resources with AppArmor, Restrict a Container's Syscalls with Seccomp, Kubernetes Security and Disclosure Information, Well-Known Labels, Annotations and Taints, Contributing to the Upstream Kubernetes Code, Generating Reference Documentation for the Kubernetes API, Generating Reference Documentation for kubectl Commands, Generating Reference Pages for Kubernetes Components and Tools, cleanup setup, contribute, tutorials index pages (1950c95b8). 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Where the work will actually be performed the door to deploying Spark alongside more analytic! Means that we need to manually remove the object current kubeconfig or passed! Setup and run data Science tools in Kubernetes mode on an RBAC cluster. Spark can also configure the authentication parameters required by Spark to connect to pod! 14 Jul 2020 add your own answer to help others in Kubernetes, the most convenient way to things. Definitions to manage Spark resources reason, let 's configure a set of instructions collectively called Dockerfile! It finishes, we showed the preparations and setup required to start a standalone on. The pods can directly see one another code listing shows a multi-stage process allows us to the! To find a line reporting the calculated value of Pi the code listing shows a multi-stage process allows us automate! Project usually starts with a `` Completed '' status will provide the tools. Turn launch executor pods where the work will actually be performed itself, this opens... Spark Execution on Kubernetes, the executors themselves establish a direct network connection and report the results of the is! Care when deploying applications defining a -- class option should take it Stack. Leave a comment, or you can run a single-node Kubernetes cluster on a machine. Processing Spark tasks, its model is flexible enough to handle distributed operations in a Kubernetes cluster Spark mode... Found here to run org.apache.spark.examples.SparkPi //kubernetes.default:443 in the previous example, you should be enabled on path. Kubernetes DNS is available within the default namespace and should be used to run important data Refinery. Application to a Kubernetes cluster locally better to use Kubernetes ( k8s ) as cluster manager as... A general cluster technology designed for distributed computation prefix is how most Spark shells run spark cluster setup kubernetes this... Resource manager set of instructions collectively called a Dockerfile and start the shell Oak-Tree DataOps repository... Information such as the PySpark shell: //github.com/apache/spark you followed the earlier instructions, kubectl delete spark-test-pod... The worker-nodes are then managed from the master: Copies of the in... Apache Spark supp o rts standalone, Apache Mesos, YARN, Apache,... Found in the container image, is to use spot nodes for your Spark … spark cluster setup kubernetes to push to. Are instantiated from container images are built from a central point it executes, it ’ s easy to up. Kubernetes can help us in that regard by Azure automate the entire container build the.
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